Ayşe Yürekli1, Oytun Erbaş1

1ERBAS Institute of Experimental Medicine, Illinois, USA & Gebze, Turkey

Keywords: Bladder, ketamine, lower urinary tract symptoms, renal toxicity, side effects


Ketamine is used to induce and maintain anesthesia prior to surgery. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1970 for the use of anesthetic and analgesic drugs, and patients who will be subjected to anesthesia receive intramuscular and intravenous administration. Ketamine has recently been shown to be effective in treating severe depression and has been used as an antidepressant, particularly in individuals with suicidal tendencies. It has been observed that suicidal individuals withdraw from this idea within a short period of time with ketamine treatment and approach the treatment positively. Ketamine blocks the sensory input in the brain, severing communication between the body and the brain. It is also used for malicious purposes, such as drugs, due to its perceptual delusion. The most common side effects of ketamine include hypertension, anorexia, nausea, respiratory depression, and lower urinary tract symptoms. It is excreted from the body by 96% of urine. For this reason, the most serious adverse effect is on the lower urinary system. In ketamine addicts, bladder wall thickening and related renal diseases could have serious consequences. In this review, ketamine and its effects on the bladder were examined.

Cite this article as: Yürekli A, Erbaş O. Ketamine-Induced Bladder Dysfunction. JEB Med Sci 2022;3(1):22-25.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.