Yaren Kul1, Oytun Erbaş1

1ERBAS Institute of Experimental Medicine, Illinois, USA & Gebze, Turkey

Keywords: Biomarkers, characterization, diagnosis, exosomes, isolation, therapeutic effects


Exosomes are rich in nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, and they are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Proteins on their membrane surfaces serve as biomarkers for multiple diseases. For this reason, exosomes take part in the diagnosis and prognosis processes. Additionally, they are involved in a variety of biological processes, such as intercellular communication, signal transduction, and immune response control. Moreover, exosomes can originate from various cell groups and their contents and functions vary according to their origin. Innovative treatments are being developed based on the several therapeutic properties of exosomes. Due to their diversity in structure and content, many methods have been developed for exosome isolation and characterization. This review covers the biogenesis of exosomes, their contents, the cell types from which they originate, and their effects on diseases, as well as isolation and characterization methods, diagnosis, and treatment approaches.

Cite this article as: Kul Y, Erbaş O. Exosomes: Classification, Isolation, and Therapeutic Applications in Various Diseases. JEB Med Sci 2022;3(1):6-12.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.