Güler Dilara Solmaz1, Oytun Erbaş1

1ERBAS Institute of Experimental Medicine, Illinois, USA & Gebze, Türkiye

Keywords: Botanicals, cognitive enhancers, drug use, neuroenhancement, non-medical drug use, smart drugs


Nootropics, also known as "smart drugs" in modern times, are a group of medicinal substances that positively affect learning and memory. While these substances are more effective when significant impairment is present, they are frequently used by healthy individuals, particularly students, to increase intelligence and improve memory. This review provides a general overview of the most commonly used and well-known classic nootropics, as well as naturally derived botanical nootropics, and their use and procurement by students today.

Cite this article as: Solmaz GD, Erbaş O. Nootropics as Cognitive Enhancers: Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use. JEB Med Sci 2023;4(1):52-61.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.