Zeynep Utku1, Utku Tekümit1, Oytun Erbaş1

1ERBAS Institute of Experimental Medicine, Illinois, USA & Gebze, Türkiye

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, biomarkers, dementia, early diagnosis, GFAP, norepinephrine.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) stands as a prominent etiological factor in dementia, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Despite being the most prevalent cause of dementia, the definitive diagnosis of AD typically occurs only after the manifestation of symptoms. This diagnostic process is subsequently associated with considerable costs and relies on tests that are often challenging to access. While clinical findings play a pivotal role in diagnosing AD, it is crucial to acknowledge that the neuropathological changes characteristic of the disease commence several decades before the onset of symptoms. Detecting these pathological alterations during the asymptomatic phase of the disease holds profound implications for patients, as it offers valuable insights into disease progression and informs treatment strategies. Early detection remains a primary obstacle in effectively managing the disease, making these biomarkers of particular interest for advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this review, our objective is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature about two potential biomarkers that offer promise in the early detection of AD.

Cite this article as: Utku Z, Tekümit U, Erbaş O. Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Plasma Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Norepinephrine. JEB Med Sci 2024;5(2):199-204.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.