Ali Kerem Kalkan1, Özüm Atasoy2, Oytun Erbaş3

1Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
3ERBAS Institute of Experimental Medicine, Illinois, USA & Gebze, Turkey

Keywords: Adolescent, humans, melatonin, pharmacotherapy


Currently, autism spectrum disorder is a common, heterogeneous disease. It is diagnosed through behavioral questionnaires, parent, and doctor observations due to there are no biomarkers. The treatment is mostly carried out through education and behavioral interventions. Proven effective drugs of concomitant diseases can also be added to the treatment regimen if it is necessary. Nevertheless, recent studies have identified several compounds including arbaclofen, oxytocin, sulforaphane, and bumetanide that have an impact on the main symptoms of autism, such as social communication deficits and restrictive/repetitive behaviors. Bumetanide, a proven diuretic, is one of the most studied chemicals in the past decade. In this review; first, diagnosis of autism and tests used for it, are briefly explained, thereafter the pharmacological treatment approaches of autism, the targeted new treatment mechanisms, the association between intracellular chloride concentration with autism are mentioned respectively. After summarising the frequently used animal models, preclinical and clinical studies that focus on the effect of bumetanide, which is the center of this review, on autism were evaluated chronologically.

Adolescent, humans, melatonin, pharmacotherapy

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.