Gökçen Kılınç1, Hadi Sasani2, Oytun Erbaş3

1University of George Emil Palade, Faculty of Medicine, Târgu Mureș, Romania
2Tekirdağ Namık Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tekirdağ, Turkey
3ERBAS Institute of Experimental Medicine, Illinois, USA & Gebze, Turkey

Keywords: Cancer, glucose, lactic acid, Warburg effect


The energy requirements of cell development are met by complete glucose catabolism, which utilizes mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to boost adenosine 5'-triphosphate production. While aerobic glycolysis can begin in tumor cells when respiration is compromised, anaerobic glycolysis starts when oxygen is not present. In cancer cells, aerobic glycolysis with oxygen results in enhanced glucose uptake and lactic acid production. The Warburg effect is an abnormal tendency of tumors to produce lactate in an environment with normal oxygen levels. Due to the reputation of early researchers and the lack of more advanced means to examine lactate metabolism, the notion that lactate generation originates from oxygen deprivation has survived. The purpose of this review was to discuss the Warburg effect's mechanism, clinical implications, and diagnostic uses in the context of the literature.

Cite this article as: Kılınç G, Sasani H, Erbaş O. The Warburg Effect on Cancer Formation and Progression. JEB Med Sci 2022;3(2):90-96.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.