Insulin Structure, Function and Diabetes Models in Animals
Selen Dağaşan1, Oytun Erbaş1,2
1ERBAS Institute of Experimental Medicine, Illinois, USA & Gebze, Turkey
2Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Demiroğlu Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Diabet, diabetic animal models, insulin
Insulin is a peptide hormone that is synthesized and secreted by beta cells in the Langerhans islets of the pancreas. It regulates carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism by providing glucose in the blood to pass to fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells. A metabolic disease called diabetes occurs as a result of inadequate insulin activity in the body or the deterioration in insulin secretion in beta cells. Diabetes may cause disability and death in the long term by causing dysfunction and damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. For this reason, experimental animal models have been created in order to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, to examine and improve the disease prevention and treatment opportunities. In this review, the structure and functions of insulin, which causes diabetes in deficiency and low release, are examined in detail, and diabetic animal models are emphasized to understand the pathogenesis of the disease.
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.